Introduction to Geography and Geographers GK MCQs With Answer & Explanation in English

1. Who coined the term “geography” for the first time?

  1. Plato
  2. Aristotle
  3. Ptolemy
  4. Eratosthenes

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Answer: Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes coined the word Geography. “Geo” means Earth; “Graphos” means Description; Geography means Earth description. Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the Earth and also the tilt axis of the Earth. He is known as the Father of Geography.

2. Systematic approach is one of the major approaches to study geography. The systematic approach was introduced by:

  1. Eratosthenes
  2. Ptolemy
  3. Alexander Von Humboldt
  4. Karl Ritter

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Answer: Alexander Von Humboldt

The systematic geography approach was introduced by German Geographer Alexander Von Humboldt, whereas the regional geography approach was introduced by another German geographer Karl Ritter. In the systematic approach, any phenomenon of geography is studied worldwide as a whole, and then the identification of typologies or spatial patterns is done.

3. Which of the following pertains to the “study of Landforms”?

  1. Geomorphology
  2. Oceanography
  3. Climatology
  4. Marine Geography

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Answer: Geomorphology

Geomorphology is the scientific study of landforms, their processes, form, and sediments at the surface of the Earth. It helps to reconstruct the history of the surface of the Earth through a study of its forms, the materials of which it is made up of, and the processes that shape it.

4. Which of the following refers to the study of the interface between physical geography and human geography?

  1. Political geography
  2. Geomorphology
  3. Biogeography
  4. Anthropology

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Answer: Biogeography

Biogeography is the study of the interface between physical geography and human geography. It includes Plant Geography, Animal Geography, Ecology, and Environmental Geography.

5. Who among the following published “Geographike hyphegesis” or “Guide to Geography” in the 2nd Century A.D?

  1. Ptolemy
  2. Strabo
  3. Herodotus
  4. Aristotle

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Answer: Ptolemy

Ptolemy made a number of contributions to geography. His book “Geographike hyphegesis” or “Guide to Geography” compiled and summarised much of the Greek and Roman geographic information accumulated at that time. “Geographia” was written by Strabo.

6. Which branch of geography refers to the standard of living and its quality of life of its human inhabitants?

  1. Development geography
  2. Anthropology
  3. Physical geography
  4. Pedology

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Answer: Development geography

In development geography, geographers study spatial patterns in development and study the standard of living and quality of life of inhabitants. The study of humans in past and present societies is known as Anthropology.

7. Which of the following is studied under Physical geography?

  1. Economic activities
  2. Human Migration
  3. Soils
  4. Settlements

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Answer: Soils

Physical geography deals with the nature of physical phenomena such as climatology, soil, and vegetation. It includes the study of landforms, rocks, minerals, soils, climate, rivers, atmosphere, etc. On the other hand, human geography deals with the study of human societies and their relationship with the Earth’s surface, including topics like population, settlements, migration, transportation, and social traditions.

8. Which of the following disciplines attempts spatial synthesis?

  1. History
  2. Geography
  3. Polity
  4. None of the above

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Answer: Geography

Geography as a discipline attempts spatial synthesis. Spatial synthesis includes any of the formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties. Temporal Synthesis, on the other hand, can be described as ‘automated construction of a system whereby we develop a temporary specification and then try to prove it. For example, history attempts temporal synthesis.

9. Study of interaction between living organisms and the environment is known as?

  1. Pedology
  2. Ecology
  3. Biology
  4. Zoology

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Answer: Ecology

Ecology is defined as the scientific study of the relationship of living organisms with each other and with their environment. It has been derived from two Greek words, ‘oikos’, meaning home or estate, and ‘logos’, meaning study. Ecology not only deals with the study of the relationship of individual organisms with their environment but also with the study of populations, communities, ecosystems, biomes, and the biosphere as a whole.

10. In which of the following human geography approaches believes that physical geographies determine human behaviour and the existence of different forms of societies?

  1. Possibilism
  2. Environmental determinism
  3. Neo-determinism
  4. Stop and go determinism

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Answer: Environmental determinism

Environmental determinism is the belief that the environment and its physical factors like landforms, climate, mountains, etc., determine the patterns of human culture and societal development. Possibilism, on the other hand, is based upon the assumption that the environment sets certain constraints or limitations, but culture is otherwise determined by social conditions. Nondeterminism or stop and go determinism chooses a middle path and was introduced by Griffith Taylor.

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